Two-Phase Liquid Immersion Cooling

GIGABYTE has joined forces with LiquidStack and 3M to offer a Two-Phase Liquid Immersion Cooling solution, allowing customers to drastically reduce their data center energy consumption and improve Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE), radically reducing operating costs and environmental impact.
Two-Phase Immersion cooling is a new type of cooling technology for data centers. In a two-phase immersion cooled system, electronic components are submerged into a bath of dielectric heat transfer liquid, which is a much better heat conductor than air, water or oil. With a low boiling point (56°C vs. 100°C in water), the fluid boils on the surface of heat generating components, and rising vapor passively takes care of heat transfer. 

In contrast to submersion oil cooling, two-phase immersion cooling liquids are clean, environmentally friendly and non-flammable. No pumps and jets are required to keep hardware cool. Circulation happens passively by the natural process of evaporation and without spending any extra energy. It is this simplicity that eliminates conventional cooling hardware and results in better cooling efficiency. Compared to traditional air, water or oil cooling, this passive process results in the use of much less energy.
Usage Scenarios
Edge Data Center
The era of 5G will require telcos to invest more in edge computing to reduce data transfer latency and increase high speed processing capabilities. Edge data centers are often located in urban areas and have a restricted amount of space. Two-phase immersion cooling allows for a much greater density of processing capabilities in a restricted space, making it ideal for an edge computing deployment.
Deep Learning
Training algorithms for artificially intelligent applications (such as autonomous driving systems) requires a large amount of parallel processing power, delivered by dense GPU deployments. A large number of high powered GPUs produce a lot of heat, requiring high electricity bills for air cooling. Two-phase immersion cooling is a much more cost efficient and environmentally friendly solution.
Advantages of Two-Phase Immersion Cooling
suitable to Performance, Efficiency
Higher Efficiency and Energy Savings
Up to >90% possible compared to air cooling - reducing power consumption & electricity bills
suitable to User Friendly, Ease of Use& Lower maintenance requirement
Improved Reliability
Components not subject to temperature variations, reducing failure potential, & no cooling fans are required, eliminating degradation from vibration.
suitable to Flexibility, Scalability, production capacity
Allows Higher Data Center Density
No need for heat sinks, cooling fans means components can be placed much closer together
suitable to Reduce Expenses, Money Saving, Reduces Cost
Lower Maintenance Requirement
Passive cooling system means no unnecessary parts to build or service, useful especially for remote locations such as edge computing stations
suitable to Reliability, Consistency
Deployment Flexibility
Works in confined spaces and extreme environments (hot & humid etc).
How Does Two-Phase Immersion Cooling Work?
Servers or other IT components are submerged in a thermally conductive dielectric liquid or coolant. Heat is removed from the system by circulating the liquid into direct contact with hot components, whereby the liquid undergoes a low-temperature evaporation process to cool the hot components and transfer the heat out of the liquid. The gas is cooled again by a heat exchanging method (such as a condenser coil) to allow return flow into the larger liquid volume.
The 2-Phase Immersion Cooling Cycle
Although two-phase immersion cooling has several different variations, LiquidStack technology uses an "open bath" system, using a tanks which contain a larger body of dielectric liquid where multiple servers are immersed into the bath, sharing the same liquid. The open bath system is fully sealed, and can be opened from the top to service IT equipment.
Immersion Cooling Solution Partners
Immersion Cooling Infrastructure – LiquidStack
Headquartered in Hong Kong, LiquidStack is a pioneer in building the most efficient cooling solutions for high density electronics, and the first to successfully implement liquid immersion technology in commercial operations since 2012. LiquidStack have also created the world's largest immersion cooling data centers with 40MW and 120MW IT load capacities. They are an official Technology Partner of 3M for immersion cooling fluids, and have won the both the DCD (Data Center Dynamics) "Future Thinking and Design Concepts” Award and the Best Green ICT Award for the Most Energy Efficient Data Center (PUE 1.01)
Immersion Cooling Fluid – 3M
3M has a long-held leadership position in immersion cooling fluids, beginning in the 1950s when 3M introduced its first dielectric fluorochemical heat transfer fluids for direct contact cooling for military avionics. Over the past five years, 3M engineered fluids have been used in server cooling and have been recognized by the industry for best in class energy efficiency.

GIGABYTE uses and recommends 3M Fluorinert FC-72 fluid for a two-phase immersion cooling system. FC-72 is a clear, colorless, non-conductive, non-flammable, residue free, thermally and chemically stable liquid. FC-72 has an extremely narrow boiling range, so its composition will not deviate with time, insuring consistent transport properties.

3M Fluorinert liquids have among the highest dielectric strength and electrical resistivity of all organic fluids, much better in fact than air. And unlike hydrocarbon liquids such as mineral oil, 3M Fluorinert liquids are completely fluorinated. This means they have little or no solvency for hydrocarbons. Components taken out of 3M Fluorinert liquid also dry out easily, and won't be wet, sticky or oily. There is no need to prepare rubber mats, tissues or other materials when taking the servers out of the liquid for maintenance.
Immersion Cooling Fluid
Immersion Cooling Servers with GIGABYTE
GIGABYTE is an industry leader in server systems for High Performance Computing, an application that is particularly suited to immersion cooling due to the high power consumption and heat generated by high performance processors. GIGABYTE can easily modify our standard server products to make them fully compatible with an immersion cooling system. 
GIGABYTE GPU Server Lineup & Immersion Cooling POC Unit Compatibility
4U GPU Server
G481-S80 (rev. 100/200)
Compatible with Customized POC Unit
4U GPU Server
G481-HA0 (rev. 200)
Compatible with Customized POC Unit
2U GPU Server
G291-281 (rev. 100)
Compatible with Standard POC Unit
2U GPU Server
G291-Z20 (rev. 100)
Compatible with Standard POC Unit
2U GPU Server
G291-280 (rev. 100)
Compatible with Standard POC Unit
Immersion Cooling POC (Proof of Concept) Unit
GIGABYTE has also designed an Immersion Cooling POC (Proof of Concept) Unit for testing and validation. This unit is fully compatible with our 2U form factor servers. The unit can also be modified on request to suit our other form factor (1U or 4U) models. Please download our brochure for detailed specifications of the POC unit.
Front View
Inner View
Top View
Rear View
Related Technologies
PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness) is the ratio of the total amount of energy used by a computer data center facility to the energy delivered to computing equipment. An ideal PUE ratio would be 1.0: 100% of the energy delivered to the data center is used for computing. However, data centers require cooling systems, lighting and other overhead that will also consume some of this energy. As such, a PUE ratio for a conventional data center will always be greater than 1.0.
Data Center
What is a data center? A data center is a facility that an organization uses for housing their IT equipment, including servers, storage, networking devices (such as switches, routers and firewalls), as well as the racks and cabling needed to organize and connect this equipment. This equipment also requires infrastructure to support it such as power distribution systems (including backup generators and uninterruptible power supplies) and ventilation and cooling systems (such as air conditioning systems or liquid cooling systems). A data center can range in size from a single room to a massive multi-warehouse complex. In 2005, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) published standard ANSI/TIA-942, "Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers", which defines four tiers of data centers by various levels of reliability or resilience. For example, a Tier 1 data center is little more than a server room, while a Tier 4 data center offers redundant subsystems and high security.
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